A REVIEW ON THE MANAGEMENT OF POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS
Osteoporosis, derived from the Greek term "porous bone," means a systemic bone disease, characterized by micro architectural deterioration, bone loss and density. Decreased bone density is also associated with increased bone density and softening of the bones. This results in increased medical expenditures and morbidity with a decrease in the quality of life of patients. According to the World Health Organization, this is defined as a decrease in bone mass (BMD) of a normal deviation of 2.5 or
... ore below the maximum BMD rate in adults with an equal number of x-ray absorptiometry. The main objective of this article is to guide the causes, risk factors, pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Altering the current screening guidelines for bone density and suggestions for treatment is essential. The choice of treatment depends on the age, presence or absence of fractures, especially in the spine, and the level of mineral bones measured in the spine. Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by bone loss, density, mass, and microarchitectural tissues that lead to bone fractures worldwide. Risk factors are associated with age, sex, hormone deficiency, underlying issues, previous fractures, and medications. The pathophysiology includes different pathways, such as classical, epigenetic, post-transcriptional, gut microbiotas, and stress-mediated signalling. Bone loss occurs without any symptoms. Screening includes both laboratory and instrumental tests such as FRAX score, thyroid dysfunctions, X-ray absorptiometry and ultrasonography. Management includes calcium/vitamin D, bisphosphonates, denosumab, estrogen replacement, and selective estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin, odanacatib, lasofoxifene, parathyroid, and hormone-related protein analogs, strontium ranelate for a better treatment strategy approach to improve patient health.