Selective inhibitors of GTP synthesis impede exocytotic insulin release from intact rat islets

S A Metz, M E Rabaglia, T J Pintar
1992 Journal of Biological Chemistry  
To investigate whether GTP concentrations can be a regulatory step in exocytotic hormone secretion, we treated isolated rat islets with mycophenolic acid (MPA) or mizoribine, two selective inhibitors of de novo GTP synthesis. When islets were cultured overnight in purine-free medium containing the drug, MPA reduced GTP levels by up to 81 +/- 1%; guanine circumvented this block via the nucleotide "salvage" pathway. MPA concomitantly inhibited glucose (16.7 mM)-induced insulin secretion in
more » ... ype incubations (or perifusions), by up to 68% at 50 micrograms/ml. Although the inhibition of secretion occurred over a similar concentration range as the reduction in total GTP content, the two variables were not directly correlated. However, the secretory effects also were prevented by adding guanine, but not hypoxanthine or xanthine, to the culture medium. Similar results for GTP content and insulin release were seen using mizoribine. Insulin content was modestly (-18%) reduced by MPA but indices of fractional release (release/insulin content) were also markedly impaired. Although MPA also reduced ATP levels more modestly (-39%) and increased UTP (+87%), these were not the cause of the secretory defect since adenine restored ATP and UTP nearly to normal, but did not alter the reduction in GTP content or insulin secretion. MPA also inhibited secretion induced by amino acid or by a phorbol ester but had virtually no effect on release induced by a depolarizing concentration of K+, suggesting that GTP depletion does not merely impede Ca+ influx or directly block Ca(2+)-activated exocytosis. However, a severe reduction of GTP content did not prevent the pertussis toxin-sensitive inhibition of insulin release induced by epinephrine, suggesting that the function of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins is not limited by ambient GTP concentrations. Although these studies do not elucidate the exact site(s) in the exocytotic cascade which depend on intact GTP stores, they do provide the first direct evidence that GTP is required (and can be rate limiting) for insulin release.
pmid:1352288 fatcat:wra6kysutfg3nfb2xx56dwynva