Robust Control of Frequency Variations for a Multi-Area Power System in Smart Grid Using a Newly Wild Horse Optimized Combination of PIDD2 and PD Controllers
This paper proposes a new combined controller, the proportional integral derivative-second derivative with a proportional derivative (PIDD2-PD), to improve the frequency response of a multi-area interconnected power system with multiple generating units linked to it. The optimum gains of the presented controller are well-tuned using a wild horse optimizer (WHO), a modern metaheuristic optimization approach. The main study is a two-area-linked power system with varied conventional and renewable
... enerating units. The physical constraints of the speed turbines and governors are considered. The WHO optimization algorithm is proven to outperform various other optimization approaches, such as the whale optimization algorithms (WOA) and chimp optimization algorithms (ChOA). The efficacy of the proposed WHO-based PIDD2-PD controller is evaluated by comparing its performance to other controllers in the literature (cascaded proportional integral derivative-tilted integral derivative (PID-TID), integral derivative-tilted (ID-T) controller). Multiple and varied scenarios are applied in this work to test the proposed controller's sturdiness to various load perturbations (step, random, and multi-step), renewable energy source penetration, and system parameter variations. The results are provided as time-domain simulations run using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results reveal that the suggested controller outperforms other structural controllers in the dynamic response of the system in terms of settling time, maximum overshoot, and undershoot values, with an improvement percentage of 70%, 73%, and 67%, respectively.