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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 2. Markal/times 2.1 Description of MARKAL/TIMES 2.1.1 Time horizon 2.1.2 Multi-regional feature 2.1.3 A technology explicit model 2.1.4 Environmental emissions 2.2 Reference Energy System (RES) 2.3 The mathematical structure of MARKAL-TIMES 2.3.1 Decision variables 2.doi:10.31274/etd-180810-2361 fatcat:7jto2cspcfdtdbkly6fk37seyi