The functioning of a semantic calque токсичный in discursive practices of the modern russian language

S. B. Popova, M. T. Shkapenko
2020 Philology at MGIMO  
The paper focuses on the semantic derivation of the adjective «toxic» in English, which underlies the neosemantization of the adjective "токсичный" in the Russian language. Due to exposing the seme of negative impact, the word "toxic" is subjected to metaphorization. It is actively used in various spheres of Anglo-American discourse. The universal character of the metaphor, in which the target domain is a person, and the source domain – toxic substances, explains the high frequency of its
more » ... quency of its usage. The conceptualization of a person and the whole system of interpersonal relations in terms of metaphor "Man is a toxic substance" is considered as a verbal indicator of the real psychological state of Anglo-American society. The high frequency of the word in political discourse is characterized as a means of language manipulation. Attention is drawn to the ethnic specificity of the American feminist socioconstruct "toxic masculinity", as a particular manifestation of the tendency to eliminate binary gender opposition. While examining the functioning of neosemantism "toxic" in the Russian language, a conclusion is made about the process of semantic calque, which proceeds in the form of exact copying the ways of its metaphorical usage in the donor language. In the speech practices of native Russian speakers the adjective "toxic" changes its traditional syntagmatics, including in the field of reference nouns with the meaning of a person or various types of human relationships. There are changes in the use of the adjective, which is becoming a fashionable attribute of the speech of politicians, financiers, and psychologists. It is emphasized that the semantic shift in the adjective "токсичный", which is carried out under the influence of the donor language, is alien to the traditional system of values of Russian native speakers.
doi:10.24833/2410-2423-2020-4-24-156-166 fatcat:xvahdvu5efdobemsdkqm7mfww4