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In 1939, Iselin noted that the properties of the ocean thermocline match those of the late-winter mixed layer, as opposed to a year-round average (Iselin, 1939) . Some 40 year later, Stommel (1979) suggested that this arises from the seasonality of the mixed layer depth, which effectively re-entrains water subducted at any time except late-winter. Stommel likened the process to that of "Maxwell's Demon" in thermodynamics, with the Demon here operating a trapdoor at the base of the mixed layer,doi:10.1002/essoar.10505747.1 fatcat:x7r7bmq2b5chnnl7gtqenthjai