Traditional and Artisanal Beverages in Nigeria: Microbial Diversity and Safety Issues
A review of up to 90 articles on the microorganisms associated with important artisanal or traditional beverages in Nigeria was carried out. This resulted in an overview of the prevalent microorganisms associated with soymilk, nono (fermented cow milk), tiger nut milk, yoghurt, kunu, zobo, palm wine and the local beers pito and brukutu. The bacteria genera, namely Bacillus, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus, were detected in all nine beverages. On the contrary, this
... the contrary, this survey resulted in finding that the genera Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Candida, and Penicillium were the eukaryotic microorganisms isolated in all beverages. The occurrence of fungal isolates, which can be responsible for producing mycotoxins, is a concern and shows the need for post-production tests. Overall, there is a low prevalence of bacteria associated with hygiene, especially the Escherichia genus in alcoholic beverages such as palm wine, pito and burukutu, which may be due both to a low acidity and high ethanol content. However, the prevalence of hygiene indicator genera was higher in nonalcoholic drinks, probably because of incorrect practices during processing. The magnitude of the production and sales of unregulated local beverages in Nigeria has reached the stage where significant regulation and food safety standards are required to safeguard public health. An opportunity exists to monitor and characterize the microbial flora of the artisanal beverages using molecular methods at all stages of production and storage.