Constrained optimisation of preliminary spacecraft configurations under the design-for-demise paradigm
In the past few years, the interest towards the implementation of design-for-demise measures has increased steadily. Most mid-sized satellites currently launched and already in orbit fail to comply with the casualty risk threshold of 0.0001. Therefore, satellites manufacturers and mission operators need to perform a disposal through a controlled re-entry, which has a higher cost and increased complexity. Through the design-for-demise paradigm, this additional cost and complexity can be removed
... s the spacecraft is directly compliant with the casualty risk regulations. However, building a spacecraft such that most of its parts will demise may lead to designs that are more vulnerable to space debris impacts, thus compromising the reliability of the mission. In fact, the requirements connected to the demisability and the survivability are in general competing. Given this competing nature, trade-off solutions can be found, which favour the implementation of design-for-demise measures while still maintaining the spacecraft resilient to space debris impacts. A multi-objective optimisation framework has been developed by the authors in previous works. The framework's objective is to find preliminary design solutions considering the competing nature of the demisability and the survivability of a spacecraft since the early stages of the mission design. In this way, a more integrated design can be achieved. The present work focuses on the improvement of the multi-objective optimisation framework by including constraints. The paper shows the application of the constrained optimisation to two relevant examples: the optimisation of a tank assembly and the optimisation of a typical satellite configuration.