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Verification of programs requires reasoning about sets of program states. In case of programs manipulating pointers, program states are pointer graphs. Verification of such programs involves reasoning about unbounded sets of graphs. Three-valued shape analysis (Sagiv et. al.) is an approach based on explicit manipulation of 3-valued shape graphs, which abstract sets of pointer graphs. Other approaches use symbolic representations, e. g., by describing (sets of) graphs as logical formulas.doi:10.1109/sefm.2005.16 dblp:conf/sefm/GeorgievaM05 fatcat:cknrexgnlbdenob23hzjvchxjq