Focused Ultrasound Tumor Ablation in Small Animal Oncology
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
The cancer incidence rates for humans and animals remain high, and efforts to improve cancer treatment are crucial. Cancer treatment for solid tumors includes both treatment of the primary tumor and of metastasis. Surgery is commonly employed to resect primary and metastatic tumors, but is invasive, and is not always the optimal treatment modality. Prevention and treatment of metastatic disease often utilizes a multimodal approach, but metastasis remains a major cause of death for both human
... veterinary cancer patients. Focused ultrasound (FUS) tumor ablation techniques represent a novel non-invasive approach to treating cancer. FUS ablation is precise, thus sparing adjacent critical structures while ablating the tumor. FUS ablation can occur in a thermal or non-thermal fashion. Thermal FUS ablation, also known as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation, destroys tumor cells via heat, whereas non-thermal FUS, known as histotripsy, ablates tumor cells via mechanical disintegration of tissue. Not only can HIFU and histotripsy ablate tumors, they also demonstrate potential to upregulate the host immune system towards an anti-tumor response. The aim of this report is provide a description of HIFU and histotripsy tumor ablation, with a focus on the basic principles of their ablation mechanisms and their clinical applicability in the field of veterinary oncology.