Update on the clinical management of Wilson's disease

Peter Hedera
2017 The Application of Clinical Genetics  
Wilson's disease (WD), albeit relatively rare, is an important genetic metabolic disease because of highly effective therapies that can be lifesaving. It is a great imitator and requires a high index of suspicion for correct and timely diagnosis. Neurologic, psychiatric and hepatologic problems in WD are very nonspecific, and we discuss the most common clinical phenotypes. The diagnosis remains laboratory based, and here we review the most important challenges and pitfalls in laboratory
more » ... on of WD, including the emerging role of genetic testing in WD diagnosis. WD is a monogenic disorder but has very high allelic heterogeneity with >500 disease-causing mutations identified, and new insights into phenotype-genotype correlations are also reviewed. The gold standard of therapy is chelation of excessive copper, but many unmet needs exist because of possible clinical deterioration in treated patients and potential adverse effects associated with currently available chelating medications. We also review the most promising novel therapeutic approaches, including chelators targeting specific cell types, cell transplantation and gene therapy.
doi:10.2147/tacg.s79121 pmid:28144156 pmcid:PMC5245916 fatcat:cs74hdruknamzhsqcc6uhndymm