Sensor noise camera identification: countering counter-forensics

Miroslav Goljan, Jessica Fridrich, Mo Chen, Edward J. Delp III, Nasir D. Memon, Adnan M. Alattar, Jana Dittmann
2010 Media Forensics and Security II  
In camera identification using sensor noise, the camera that took a given image can be determined with high certainty by establishing the presence of the camera's sensor fingerprint in the image. In this paper, we develop methods to reveal counter-forensic activities in which an attacker estimates the camera fingerprint from a set of images and pastes it onto an image from a different camera with the intent to introduce a false alarm and, in doing so, frame an innocent victim. We start by
more » ... . We start by classifying different scenarios based on the sophistication of the attacker's activity and the means available to her and to the victim, who wishes to defend herself. The key observation is that at least some of the images that were used by the attacker to estimate the fake fingerprint will likely be available to the victim as well. We describe the socalled "triangle test" that helps the victim reveal attacker's malicious activity with high certainty under a wide range of conditions. This test is then extended to the case when none of the images that the attacker used to create the fake fingerprint are available to the victim but the victim has at least two forged images to analyze. We demonstrate the test's performance experimentally and investigate its limitations. The conclusion that can be made from this study is that planting a sensor fingerprint in an image without leaving a trace is significantly more difficult than previously thought. α = + J J K a I , = + J J , J
doi:10.1117/12.839055 dblp:conf/mediaforensics/GoljanFC10 fatcat:hr2hdmtewjcmrkgukbzm2y3exq