KangKang Yin, Kevin Loken, Michiel van de Panne
2007 ACM Transactions on Graphics  
Figure 1 : Real-time physics-based character simulation with our framework. (a) A single controller for a planar biped responds to unanticipated changes in terrain. (b) A walk controller reconstructed from motion capture data responds to a 350N, 0.2s diagonal push to the torso. Abstract Physics-based simulation and control of biped locomotion is difficult because bipeds are unstable, underactuated, high-dimensional dynamical systems. We develop a simple control strategy that can be used to
more » ... ate a large variety of gaits and styles in real-time, including walking in all directions (forwards, backwards, sideways, turning), running, skipping, and hopping. Controllers can be authored using a small number of parameters, or their construction can be informed by motion capture data. The controllers are applied to 2D and 3D physically-simulated character models. Their robustness is demonstrated with respect to pushes in all directions, unexpected steps and slopes, and unexpected variations in kinematic and dynamic parameters. Direct transitions between controllers are demonstrated as well as parameterized control of changes in direction and speed. Feedback-error learning is applied to learn predictive torque models, which allows for the low-gain control that typifies many natural motions as well as producing smoother simulated motion.
doi:10.1145/1276377.1276509 fatcat:sgiunehitnb3pn3ppbyoscjbrq