Exceptional origin activation revealed by comparative analysis in two laboratory yeast strains
AbstractWe performed a comparative analysis of replication origin activation by genome-wide single-stranded DNA mapping in two common laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae challenged by hydroxyurea (HU), an inhibitor of the ribonucleotide reductase. By doing so we gained understanding of the impact on origin activation by three factors: replication checkpoint control, DNA sequence polymorphisms, and relative positioning of origin and transcription unit. Our analysis recapitulated the
... evious finding that the majority of origins are subject to checkpoint control by the Rad53 kinase when cells were treated with HU. In addition, origins either subject to Rad53 checkpoint control or impervious to it are largely concordant between the two strains. However, these two strains also produced different dynamics of origin activation. First, the W303-RAD53 cells showed a significant reduction of fork progression than A364a-RAD53 cells. This phenotype was accompanied by an elevated level of Rad53 phosphorylation in W303-RAD53 cells. Second, W303-rad53K227A checkpoint-deficient cells activated a greater number of origins accompanied by global reduction of ssDNA across all origins compared to A364a-rad53K227A cells; and this is correlated with lower expression level of the mutant protein in W303 than in A364a. We also show that sequence polymorphism in the consensus motifs of the replication origins plays a minor role in determining origin usage. Remarkably, eight strain-specific origins lack the canonical 11-bp consensus motif for autonomously replicating sequences in either strain background. Finally, we identified a new class of origins that are only active in checkpoint-proficient cells, which we named "Rad53-dependent origins". The only discernible feature of these origins is that they tend to overlap with an open reading frame, suggesting previously unexplored connection between transcription and origin activation. Our study presents a comprehensive list of origin usage in two diverse yeast genetic backgrounds, fine-tunes the different categories of origins with respect to checkpoint control, and provokes further exploration of the interplay between origin activation and transcription.Author SummaryComparative analysis of origins of replication in two laboratory yeast strains reveals new insights into origin activation, regulation and dependency on the Rad53 checkpoint kinase.