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Many additive manufacturing processes use energy from laser beam to melt powder particles to form layered objects. This paper mainly focused its attention on some of the major factors which plays a vital role during laser melting, namely energy penetration, shrinkage, absorptivity and marangoni effect. A study was performed to simulate and validate the effect of energy density on Marangoni effect and energy penetration. Analytical solutions to moving heat source problems were developed anddoaj:ac40f086d9c74002892fe0240ed36ac6 fatcat:d2kifjyzprcqheafouda6bczia