Modeling Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Ground and Surface Water Sources in Rural India: Associations with Latrines, Livestock, Damaged Wells, and Rainfall Patterns

Miles E. Daniels, Woutrina A. Smith, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Thomas Clasen, Marion W. Jenkins
2016 Environmental Science and Technology  
CHAPTER 2 PLANNING VISION The vision for urban sanitation in India as mentioned in the National Urban Sanitation Policy (2008) of Government of India is: 'All Indian cities and towns become totally sanitized, healthy and liveable, and ensure and sustain good public health and environmental outcomes for all their citizens with a special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and women'. OBJECTIVES The objective of a sewage collection, treatment and disposal
more » ... em is to ensure that sewage discharged from communities is properly collected, transported, and treated to the required degree in short, medium, and long-term, and disposed-off / reused without causing any health or environmental problems. Short term: It implies immediate provision of onsite system. It is an interim arrangement till the implementation of long term system. Short term plan should be formulated targeting up to 5 years from the base year. Medium term: It implies the provision of a decentralized (nonconventional) system of collection for rapid implementation of collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal/local reuse to avoid sporadic sewage discharges into the environment and where conventional sewerage system is yet not feasible. Medium-term plans should have a target of 15 years from the base year. Long term: It implies conventional sewage collection, transportation, treatment, and environmentally sound disposal/reuse. It encompasses the short term and medium term. Longterm plans should be formulated for a target of 30 years from the base year.
doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b05797 pmid:27310009 pmcid:PMC5058636 fatcat:adkcu53awffnpmynakr7bhj7um