Some remarks on regular integers modulo n

Brăduţ Apostol, László Tóth
2015 Filomat  
An integer $k$ is called regular (mod $n$) if there exists an integer $x$ such that $k^2x\equiv k$ (mod $n$). This holds true if and only if $k$ possesses a weak order (mod $n$), i.e., there is an integer $m\ge 1$ such that $k^{m+1} \equiv k$ (mod $n$). Let $\varrho(n)$ denote the number of regular integers (mod $n$) in the set $\{1,2,\ldots,n\}$. This is an analogue of Euler's $\phi$ function. We introduce the multidimensional generalization of $\varrho$, which is the analogue of Jordan's
more » ... ue of Jordan's function. We establish identities for the power sums of regular integers (mod $n$) and for some other finite sums and products over regular integers (mod $n$), involving the Bernoulli polynomials, the Gamma function and the cyclotomic polynomials, among others. We also deduce an analogue of Menon's identity and investigate the maximal orders of certain related functions.
doi:10.2298/fil1504687a fatcat:c2rdohixr5eubpiudkb66pa5bu