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Some remarks on regular integers modulo n

2015
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Filomat
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An integer $k$ is called regular (mod $n$) if there exists an integer $x$ such that $k^2x\equiv k$ (mod $n$). This holds true if and only if $k$ possesses a weak order (mod $n$), i.e., there is an integer $m\ge 1$ such that $k^{m+1} \equiv k$ (mod $n$). Let $\varrho(n)$ denote the number of regular integers (mod $n$) in the set $\{1,2,\ldots,n\}$. This is an analogue of Euler's $\phi$ function. We introduce the multidimensional generalization of $\varrho$, which is the analogue of Jordan's

doi:10.2298/fil1504687a
fatcat:c2rdohixr5eubpiudkb66pa5bu