The interaction of glutathione and thymoquinone and their antioxidant properties

Ferah Armutcu, Sumeyya Akyol, Omer Akyol
2018 Electronic Journal of General Medicine  
Protein S-glutathionylation has been regarded as one of the main mechanisms that control cell signaling and metabolic regulation. Several diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and many types of cancer have been certainly found to be related with Sglutathionylation. It can be regarded as a promising area for therapeutic and diagnostic approaches in many diseases. In this mini review, we aimed to summarize and compare the interaction of glutathione (GSH)
more » ... f glutathione (GSH) and thymoquinone (TQ), and elucidate the possible synergistic mechanisms of antioxidant and other beneficial effects. Armutcu et al. / The interaction of glutathione and thymoquinone 2 / 8 PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF GLUTATHIONE Reduced GSH is one of the most common non-protein thiol in mammalian cells. It protects hemoglobin and other critical RBC proteins from peroxidative injury. GSH is an important intracellular reductant and antioxidant, helping to Figure 2 : Thymoquinone (TQ) and its oxidation-reduction cycling mechanism. A one-step two-electron reduction (E6) or by each of the one electron reduced in two successive steps (E1, E2 ve E3) reduction enzymatic reactions plays a role converting TQ into thymohydroquinone. To generate glutathionylated-dihydrothymoquinone, glutathione and TQ reacts with each other nonenzymatically and a reduction reaction is taken place. E1: NADPH cytochrome reductase, E2: NADH cytochrome b5 reductase, E3: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, E4: Superoxide dismutase, E5: Catalase, E6: NADPH quinone oxidoreductase Electron J Gen Med 2018;15(4):em59 Figure 1: Representation of glutathione GSH as a redox buffer in biological systems. The redox capacity of cell is reflected by the ratio of GSH/GSSG. Oxidation/reduction reactions involving GR and GPX are used to keep the ratio in balance. ROS or RNS-induced changes which may ultimately decrease GSH level and lead to cell death via apoptosis or necrosis
doi:10.29333/ejgm/89493 fatcat:vd554wvgsbg5thwkwumtc7mw4a