Multi-SimLex: A Large-Scale Evaluation of Multilingual and Cross-Lingual Lexical Semantic Similarity

Ivan Vulić, Edoardo Maria Ponti, Ira Leviant, Olga Majewska, Matt Malone, Roi Reichart, Simon Baker, Ulla Petti, Kelly Wing, Eden Bar, Thierry Poibeau, Anna Korhonen
2020 Computational Linguistics  
We introduce Multi-SimLex, a large-scale lexical resource and evaluation benchmark covering data sets for 12 typologically diverse languages, including major languages (e.g., Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, Russian) as well as less-resourced ones (e.g., Welsh, Kiswahili). Each language data set is annotated for the lexical relation of semantic similarity and contains 1,888 semantically aligned concept pairs, providing a representative coverage of word classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs),
more » ... uency ranks, similarity intervals, lexical fields, and concreteness levels. Additionally, owing to the alignment of concepts across languages, we provide a suite of 66 cross-lingual semantic similarity data sets. Due to its extensive size and language coverage, Multi-SimLex provides entirely novel opportunities for experimental evaluation and analysis. On its monolingual and cross-lingual benchmarks, we evaluate and analyze a wide array of recent state-of-the-art monolingual and cross-lingual representation models, including static and contextualized word embeddings (such as fastText, monolingual and multilingual BERT, XLM), externally informed lexical representations, as well as fully unsupervised and (weakly) supervised cross-lingual word embeddings. We also present a step-by-step data set creation protocol for creating consistent, Multi-Simlex -style resources for additional languages. We make these contributions - the public release of Multi-SimLex data sets, their creation protocol, strong baseline results, and in-depth analyses which can be be helpful in guiding future developments in multilingual lexical semantics and representation learning - available via a website which will encourage community effort in further expansion of Multi-Simlex to many more languages. Such a large-scale semantic resource could inspire significant further advances in NLP across languages.
doi:10.1162/coli_a_00391 fatcat:42esnmz2gvgs7irdhigl6t7xtm