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During the past 20 years, pension reforms in the EU countries have lowered pension benefits. As a consequence of reforms each person's responsibility for the result has increased. Examples of such reforms are those in Latvia (1995–2001), Germany (2001–2004) and the Netherlands (2004–2010). The essential part of future pension sufficiency is based on funded pension schemes, which are expected to prevent poverty and ensure the replacement of sufficient income in old age.The government defines adoi:10.17770/sie2016vol4.1569 fatcat:5sje3dlzrjaqhe7n27ockto66m