An Analysis of the Neurological and Molecular Alterations Underlying the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease

Chantal Vidal, Li Zhang
2021 Cells  
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss. Unfortunately, despite decades of studies being performed on these histological alterations, there is no effective treatment or cure for AD. Identifying the molecular characteristics of the disease is imperative to understanding the pathogenesis of AD. Furthermore, uncovering the key causative alterations of AD can be valuable in developing models for
more » ... D treatment. Several alterations have been implicated in driving this disease, including blood–brain barrier dysfunction, hypoxia, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, glucose hypometabolism, and altered heme homeostasis. Although these alterations have all been associated with the progression of AD, the root cause of AD has not been identified. Intriguingly, recent studies have pinpointed dysfunctional heme metabolism as a culprit of the development of AD. Heme has been shown to be central in neuronal function, mitochondrial respiration, and oxidative stress. Therefore, dysregulation of heme homeostasis may play a pivotal role in the manifestation of AD and its various alterations. This review will discuss the most common neurological and molecular alterations associated with AD and point out the critical role heme plays in the development of this disease.
doi:10.3390/cells10030546 pmid:33806317 pmcid:PMC7998384 fatcat:sxb2223axbehvdvsa7eqghz3lq