Chemical Interference of Pathogen-associated Molecular Pattern-triggered Immune Responses inArabidopsisReveals a Potential Role for Fatty-acid Synthase Type II Complex-derived Lipid Signals

Mario Serrano, Silke Robatzek, Martha Torres, Erich Kombrink, Imre E. Somssich, Mike Robinson, Paul Schulze-Lefert
2006 Journal of Biological Chemistry  
We describe an experimental setup using submerged cultures of Arabidopsis seedlings in 96-well microtiter plates that permits chemical intervention of rapid elicitor-mediated immune responses. Screening of a chemical library comprising 120 small molecules with known biological activities revealed four compounds reducing cellulysin-or flg22-activated gene expression of the early pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)responsive ATL2 gene. One chemical, oxytriazine, was found to induce ATL2
more » ... gene expression in the absence of PAMP. By monitoring additional flg22-triggered immediate early plant responses, we present evidence that two compounds, triclosan and fluazinam, interfere with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and internalization of the activated plasma membrane resident FLS2 immune receptor. Using triclosan structure types and enzyme activity inhibition assays, Arabidopsis MOD1 enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, a subunit of the fatty-acid synthase type II (FAS II) complex, was identified as a likely cellular target of triclosan. Inhibition of all tested elicitor-triggered early immune responses by triclosan indicates a potential role for signaling lipids in flg22-triggered immunity. Chemical profiling of eca mutants, each showing deregulated ATL2 gene expression, with the identified compounds revealed mutantspecific response patterns and allowed us to deduce tentative action sites of ECA genes relative to the compound targets.
doi:10.1074/jbc.m608792200 pmid:17166839 fatcat:psknmk42bzhphh3rkqctsbis5u