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Physical review B
Recent advances in the experimental growth and control of disordered thin films, heterostructures, and interfaces provide a fertile ground for the observation and characterisation of the collective superconducting excitations emerging below $T_c$ after breaking the $U(1)$ gauge symmetry. Here we combine THz experiments in a nano-structured granular Al thin film and theoretical calculations to demonstrate the existence of optically-active phase modes, which represent the Goldstone excitations ofdoi:10.1103/physrevb.96.094514 fatcat:aqhngnaatngddakhboflednidu