In Vitro Screening of New Biological Limiters against Some of the Main Soil-Borne Phytopathogens
Giovanni D'Ambrosio, Corrado Cariddi, Francesco Mannerucci, Giovanni Luigi Bruno
This study explored the role of Aphanocladium album (strain MX95), Pleurotus ostreatus (strain ALPO) and Pleurotus eryngii (strain AL142PE) as potential biological limiters. MX95, ALPO and AL142PE were screened under laboratory studies against Phytophthora nicotianae (PN), Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL), Fusarium solani (FS), Sclerotinia minor (SM), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SS), Athelia (Sclerotium) rolfsii (AR) and
... dahliae (VD). The radial growth inhibition and the over-growth of potential antagonists on the target organisms were used to assess the interactions in the in vitro dual culture plate assay. The antagonistic ability of each challenge isolate was evaluated by calculating an index of the antagonism (AI) based on the interaction type in the dual cultures. MX95, reducing the growth of SS (20%) and FS (40%), displayed deadlock at mycelial contact against FOL and FORL, deadlock at distance versus VD and completely over-grew PN and SM. ALPO reduced (43 to 88%) the mycelial growth of tested pathogens except FORL and replaced PN and VD. AL142PE reducing (53 to 67%) SS, VD, FS and FOL mycelial growth and completely over-grew PN. AR showed combative ability against all the experienced biological limiters. Based on the results of the AI values, MX95 (AI = 16.5) was considered an active antagonist, while ALPO (AI = 11.5) and AL142PE (AI = 12.0) were moderately active antagonists. Strains MX95, ALPO and AL142PE were suitable as environment-friendly potential biocontrol agents to manage some of the main soil-borne agents of foot, root, soft rot and wilt diseases. These results are the first step in the assessment of the potential capacity of these organisms as biological limiters. Nevertheless, additional experiments should be performed for the translation to the field conditions in plant protection against soil-borne plant pathogens. In particular, the optimisation of dose and application time validation should be performed for a solid conclusion about the competitive ability of MX95, ALPO and AL142PE and the usefulness of potential biological limiters.