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Let L d 2k be the d-dimensional space with 2k-norm. Given a ÿnite set N of points in this space. Find a connected graph G = (V; E) such that N ⊆ V and the total length of G is minimal. Such a network is called a Steiner minimal tree (SMT). If we connect pairs of given points only, we ÿnd a minimum spanning tree (MST). Whereas an MST is easy to ÿnd a method to construct an SMT in L d 2k needs exponential time for d = 2 and is still unknown for d ¿ 2. The Steiner ratio m(d; 2k) of L d 2k is adoi:10.1016/s0166-218x(99)00076-1 fatcat:hlnsagtofbds3pbu4olwcv5424