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<i title="Commonwealth Forestry Association">
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/uktompg7tvbohb2eyj5y7mdxba" style="color: black;">International forestry review</a>
Environmental policies such as payments for ecosystem services (PES) assume reforestation increases ecosystem service (ES) provisions and human welfare. In PES schemes, reforestation may include natural or plantation forests, which may result in unknown ES tradeoffs. Since ecological processes modulating ES within forests are studied at plot scale, spatial up-scaling is needed to link ES tradeoffs to economic benefi ts at scales perceived by residents. We aim to quantify ES tradeoffs and<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1505/146554814814281701">doi:10.1505/146554814814281701</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/tkm4o67rtvbjban3fbhbcayvqa">fatcat:tkm4o67rtvbjban3fbhbcayvqa</a> </span>
more »... ed benefi ts in a seasonally dry region of Costa Rica where extensive reforestation occurred partly due to PES-sponsored plantations of introduced species. We are using plot-scale measurements of water balance and pollinator diversity per forest type to calibrate spatially explicit ES modeling platforms using high resolution forest cover maps. We will examine how water yield and pollination ES link spatially to resident benefi ts obtained via stated-preference methods. Initial survey results showed ~30% of sampled rural residents suffer water shortages in the dry season, yet the relationship of perceived benefi ts with changes in forest cover and associated ES tradeoffs remain to be assessed. We expect our results will help clarify social-ecological links between ES provisions and benefi ts in PES and broaden the application of these methods in human-modifi ed tropical landscapes. Growth response of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) seedlings to organic and inorganic fertilizers on an Alfi sol in south-western Nigeria. ). The study investigated the effects of poultry manure (PM), spent mushroom substrate (SMS), bark of Moringa oleifera pod (BMP), and NPK (15:15:15) fertilizers applied singly and in combination on early growth of uniform-sized M. oleifera seedlings in an Alfi sol in south-western Nigeria. The treatments were: T1=5 t/ha PM, T2=10 t/ha PM, T3=5 t/ha SMS, T4=10 t/ha SMS, T5=5 t/ha BMP, T6=10 t/ha BMP, T7=2.5 t/ha PM + 2.5 t/ha SMS, T8=2.5 t/ha PM + 2.5 t/ha BMP, T9=2.5 t/ha BMP + 2.5 t/ha SMS, T10=100 kg/ha NPK, T11=200 kg/ha NPK, and T12=control. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with four replicates. Data were collected bimonthly for 6 months. The results showed that plants grown under 2.5 t/ha PM + 2.5 t/ha SMS had the highest plant height (90.6 cm) and collar diameter (8.3 mm) whereas those grown in 2.5 t/ha PM + 2.5 t/ha BMP produced signifi cantly greater number of leaves (70.40) and branches (14.6). Thus, it is recommended that a combination of poultry manure with spent mushroom substrate should be used for raising good-sized seedlings of M. oleifera for plantation establishment. Assessment of current woody species and potential candidate for forest exploitation: implication for reforestation system improvement in Benin. Akpona, A. (Direction Générale des Forêts et des Ressources Naturelles, Benin; email@example.com), Sustainable reforestation in Benin requires a forward-looking vision which predicts succession in the use of tree species for various purposes and includes it in reforestation planning. We documented current and potential candidate woody species involved in forest exploitation, the criteria which determined their choice, and the level of mastery of their production in a nursery. We surveyed 140 persons involved in tree use and performed a correspondence analysis and principal component analysis for perceived frequency citations abundance, threats, and criteria selection of species in order to establish respectively the relationship between the perceptions of abundance, threats, and the woody species as well as the criteria of choice and the woody species. A total of 31 wood species from 15 botanical families are listed as potential candidates, while 24 wood species belonging to 12 families are currently exploited for timber, art, and sculpture purposes. Thirteen criteria determined the choice of species and vary depending on the type of use. Only 40% of current woody species and potential candidates are produced in nurseries, and less than 30% of species are currently involved in reforestation programs. A long-term plan for integrating targeted species into reforestation programs is required and necessitates synergy among stakeholders. Examining native and exotic Pinus taeda plantation spacing, resource availability and varietal effects using crown ideotypes. ). To meet demand for forest products, from solid wood to bioenergy, managers must utilize intensive silvicultural practices including site selection, resource management, stocking, and elite genetic material including clones. While our understanding of these factors has improved tremendously in the past 50 years, questions still remain including how to evaluate clonal material and why P. taeda planted in the southern hemisphere typically outperforms that in the southeast United States. Our approach to address these questions has been to establish three sites (Virginia: outside native range but in the southeast United States; North Carolina: native range; and Brazil: southern hemisphere) where the same clones, mass control pollinated and open pollinated families with a range in crown ideotype, were planted at three spacings (618, 1 235, 1 853 stems/ha; from wide spacing for solid wood to narrow spacing for bioenergy biomass production), and two levels of resource availability (operational and intensive for maximum growth). We will present growth response data after 3 years to understand if crown ideotype will be useful in identifying the best silvicultural regime for a given genetic entry. XXIV IUFRO World Congress Sustaining Forests, Sustaining People: The Role of Research General Poster Sessions A forest for all: management for multiple uses. Axelsson, E., Strengbom, J., Lundmark, T., Nordin, A. (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; Tomas.Lundmark@slu.se; Annika.Nordin@slu.se). Implementing multi-use management to account for both commercial and ecosystem values of managed systems is accumulating global recognition. This study explores the infl uence of forest management practices including thinning, nitrogen fertilization, and unmanaged control on the multi-use potential of pine (Pinus sylvestris) dominated forests in Sweden. The results showed that the species diversity of understory vegetation was higher in thinned than in unmanaged forests. Lichen biomass increased three-fold in thinned forests. Fertilization decreased the abundance of lingonberry shrubs (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) while thinning in combination with fertilization increased that of bilberry shrubs (V. myrtillus). Annual stem volume increment increased with fertilization but decreased with thinning. Due to these divergent effects, tradeoffs among different ecosystem services was common, e.g., thinning increased reindeer fodder potential by 200% while at the same time it decreased annual stem volume increment by 28%. We showed that forest fl oor vegetation responses depend both on management action and focal ecosystem delivery. Hence, it appears possible to design management actions in accordance with management goals as long as the goals are carefully specifi ed. As tradeoffs were common and nonmonetary deliveries such as biodiversity will need consideration, a key challenge will be to decide on these goals and adjust management actions accordingly. Introduction of adaptable tree species to arid climate in Iran: case study at Fars Province, Darab. Azhdari, F. (University of Tehran, Iran; firstname.lastname@example.org). Because Iran has a dry climate, increasing forest area through plantations is of particular importance. In plantation projects, species from a known origin should be used. Lacking information on the species being planted may be hazardous to the ecosystem. Therefore, the ecological conditions of the natural distribution of the species being planted should match the area where they are being introduced. In this paper, adaptable species were introduced into Fars Province, Darab. The climatological parameters used were mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, maximum and minimum absolute temperature, mean relative humidity, and dry season duration. Based on the climatological indexes of De Marti and Amberge, the climate in this area was determined to be arid. Based on these studied parameters, 20 tree species were introduced for this area. Studies like this are necessary in arid area like Zagros. It is hoped that studies on management of forest parks and forestry plantations will be increased due to effective preservation and management. Improving soil conditions to increase productivity of Tectona grandis in northern Costa Rica: established plantations.
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