Assessment of uncertainties for measurements of total near-normal emissivity of low-emissivity foils with an industrial emissometer
Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems
Abstract. The TIR100-2 emissometer (manufactured by Inglas GmbH & Co.KG) is an emissivity measurement device used by several producers of thermal insulation products for buildings and by some organizations certifying performance of insulation products. A comparison of emissivity measurements on low-emissivity foils involving different measurement techniques, including the TIR100-2 emissometer, gave widely dispersed results; the discrepancies were not explained. The metrological performance
... ogical performance of the TIR100-2 emissometer and the uncertainties for measurement on reflective foils was not known, which could be detrimental to users. In order to quantify the performance of TIR100-2 devices for measurement of total near-normal emissivity of low-emissivity foils, the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais (LNE) analyzed in detail the measuring principle and listed the associated assumptions and uncertainty sources. A TIR100-2 emissometer actually measures the reflectance and, for opaque materials, the emissivity is calculated from the measured reflectance. The parameters analyzed experimentally are the temperature stability and uniformity of the thermal radiation source, the emissivity of the radiation source, the response function linearity and the spectral sensitivity of the radiometric detection system measuring the reflected radiation, the size of the measurement area, and the measurement repeatability and reproducibility. A detailed uncertainty budget was established. The uncertainty sources taken into account are the uncertainties of the emissivities of the two calibrated standards used for calibration, the stability and uniformity of the radiation source temperature, the non-linearity and the spectral sensitivity of the radiometric detection system, the specific measurement condition related to the radiation source temperature, the uncertainties related to the temperatures of the standards and the sample, the noises on results, and the non-homogeneity in emissivity of the tested material. The combined measurement uncertainty was calculated for different types of reflective foils; the expanded uncertainty is around 0.03 for total near-normal emissivity measurements on smooth low-emissivity foils. A measurement campaign on five types of low-emissivity foils, involving four TIR100-2 emissometers, and a comparison to a primary reference setup at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) confirmed the uncertainties assessed.