Biosynthesis of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet-activating factor) from 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine by rat alveolar macrophages. Phospholipase A2 and acetyltransferase activities during phagocytosis and ionophore stimulation

D H Albert, F Snyder
1983 Journal of Biological Chemistry  
1-Alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-acyl-GPC) comprises 11% of the total phospholipids of rat alveolar macrophages. This endogenous pool of alkylacyl-GPC was prelabeled by incubating the macrophages with [1,2-3H]alkyllyso-GPC (54 Ci/mmol), which enters the cells and is acylated. The effect of various stimuli on the synthesis and release into the media of labeled alkylacetyl-GPC (platelet-activating factor) from the cells was used to establish the role of inactive alkylacyl-GPC as
more » ... e alkylacyl-GPC as a precursor of the biologically active derivative. A phagocytic agent (zymosan, 100 micrograms/ml) and an ionophore (A23187, 2 microM) stimulated the release of both alkylacetyl-GPC and alkyllyso-GPC into the media at the expense of cellular alkylacyl-GPC. Phospholipase A2 activity (at pH 4.5 and in 1 mM EDTA) was also increased in the media. The stimulatory effect of zymosan and the ionophore on alkylacetyl-GPC release was prevented by mepacrine (0.1 mM), an agent that inhibits the release of fatty acids from phospholipids. These data indicate that phospholipase activity is required for the biosynthesis of alkylacetyl-GPC. However, since the inhibitory effect of mepacrine was not apparent when acetate was present, it appears that the acetylation step is rate limiting. Exposure of alveolar macrophages in culture to zymosan or A23187 stimulated acetyltransferase activity 250-300%. In contrast, phorbol myristate acetate (1.6 microM), which stimulated the accumulation of lysophospholipids but not the level of alkylacetyl-GPC in the media, did not substantially increase acetyltransferase activity. We conclude that alkylacyl-GPC serves as a precursor of alkylacetyl-GPC and that the production of this potent mediator by rat alveolar macrophages can be stimulated by agents that affect phospholipase A2 and acetyltransferase activities. The latter enzyme appears to have a regulatory function in the biosynthesis of alkylacetyl-GPC.
pmid:6401298 fatcat:6egf3bv3mjhnda6pwuyr5xzd2u