Quantitation of Mono(ADP-ribosyl) and Poly(ADP-ribosyl) Proteins
The Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrRpm1 activates the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) intracellular innate immune receptor protein RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS MACULICOLA1 (RPM1) via modification of a second Arabidopsis protein, RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (AtRIN4). Prior work has shown that AvrRpm1 induces phosphorylation of AtRIN4, but homology modeling indicated that AvrRpm1 may be an ADP-ribosyl transferase. Here, we show that AvrRpm1 induces ADP-ribosylation of RIN4 proteins from
... IN4 proteins from both Arabidopsis and soybean (Glycine max) within two highly conserved nitrateinduced (NOI) domains. It also ADP ribosylates at least 10 additional Arabidopsis NOI domain-containing proteins. The ADPribosylation activity of AvrRpm1 is required for subsequent phosphorylation on Thr-166 of AtRIN4, an event that is necessary and sufficient for RPM1 activation. We also show that the C-terminal NOI domain of AtRIN4 interacts with the exocyst subunits EXO70B1, EXO70E1, EXO70E2, and EXO70F1. Mutation of either EXO70B1 or EXO70E2 inhibited secretion of callose induced by the bacterial flagellin-derived peptide flg22. Substitution of RIN4 Thr-166 with Asp enhanced the association of AtRIN4 with EXO70E2, which we posit inhibits its callose deposition function. Collectively, these data indicate that AvrRpm1 ADP-ribosyl transferase activity contributes to virulence by promoting phosphorylation of RIN4 Thr-166, which inhibits the secretion of defense compounds by promoting the inhibitory association of RIN4 with EXO70 proteins.