Factors associated with indications for surgery and the presence of intestinal necrosis in patients with hepatic portal venous gas: A multicenter retrospective cohort study
Background The presence of hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) has been associated with intestinal necrosis and is an indication for surgical intervention. But some cases can be treated conservatively. This study aimed to examine the factors associated with the need for surgical intervention and the development of intestinal necrosis in patients with HPVG.Methods This was a retrospective, multicenter and observational cohort study consisting of 166 patients who were diagnosed as having HPVG based
... having HPVG based on CT findings between April 2013 and March 2019. The patients were divided into two groups: surgery Required Group and Non-surgery Required Group. We reviewed medical records for clinical backgrounds, vital signs, laboratory data, CT findings, and compared the two groups using the Chi-square test and Student's t-test with p-values < 0.05 indicating statistical significance.Results There were 72 patients in the Surgery Required Group and 94 in the Non-surgery Required Group. There were no statistically significant differences in age and sex between the two groups. Pulse rate (PR) ( p = 0.004), C-reactive protein (CRP) ( p = 0.012), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ( p = 0.006) and abnormality of the white blood cell count (WBC) ( p = 0.012) in the Surgery Required Group were significantly higher than those in the Non-surgery Required Group. The diameter of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and vein (SMV), and ratio of SMV/SMA were measured but no statistically significant difference was observed. Band-like pneumatosis ( p < 0.001) and ring like pneumatosis( p < 0.001) were observed with a significantly higher frequency in the Surgery Required Group, but no significant difference was observed in bubble-like pneumatosis. Intrahepatic HPVG was significantly more frequent in the Non-surgery Required Group than surgery Required Group ( p < 0.001), and extrahepatic HPVG ( p < 0.001) was the opposite result. There was no significant difference of HPVG distribution in lobes.Conclusions PR, CRP, LDH, abnormality of WBC, band-like pneumatosis, ring-like pneumatosis, and extrahepatic HPVG are the factors associated with an indication for surgery indication and intestinal necrosis in patients with HPVG.