Symplectic integration and physical interpretation of time-dependent coupled-cluster theory

Thomas Bondo Pedersen, Simen Kvaal
2019 Journal of Chemical Physics  
The formulation of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation in terms of coupled-cluster theory is outlined, with emphasis on the bivariational framework and its classical Hamiltonian structure. An indefinite inner product is introduced, inducing physical interpretation of coupled-cluster states in the form of transition probabilities, autocorrelation functions, and explicitly real values for observables, solving interpretation issues which are present in time-dependent coupled-cluster theory and
more » ... in ground-state calculations of molecular systems under influence of external magnetic fields. The problem of the numerical integration of the equations of motion is considered, and a critial evaluation of the standard fourth-order Runge--Kutta scheme and the symplectic Gauss integrator of variable order is given, including several illustrative numerical experiments. While the Gauss integrator is stable even for laser pulses well above the perturbation limit, our experiments indicate that a system-dependent upper limit exists for the external field strengths. Above this limit, time-dependent coupled-cluster calculations become very challenging numerically, even in the full configuration interaction limit. The source of these numerical instabilities is shown to be rapid increases of the amplitudes as ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses pump the system out of the ground state into states that are virtually orthogonal to the static Hartree-Fock reference determinant.
doi:10.1063/1.5085390 fatcat:knzdg62iafcj5ouqzymfj5m2ea