Effect of cyanidin-glucoside and its metabolites on inflammatory biomarkers of vascular function
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Diet derived anthocyanins may have vasoprotective properties (1) , however their low bioavailability suggests that their bioactivity is mediated by their degradants and/or metabolites (2) . Endothelial expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and cytokines can be activated through ligation of CD40L to its receptor or injury to the endothelium by oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) (3) , and is an initiating step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to
... dy aimed to investigate the ability of cyanidin-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant dietary anthocyanin, and its metabolites to modulate the expression of CAMs and cytokines in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) challenged with either CD40L or oxLDL. Compounds selected for bioactivity screening were C3G, its degradant, protocatechuic acid (PCA), and a methylated metabolite of PCA, vanillic acid (VA). HUVEC were treated with either CD40L expressing Jurkat cells (D1.1 cells, 1 · 10 6 cell/well) or oxLDL (5 mg/mL), with or without C3G, PCA or VA at 0.1 to 10 mM concentrations for 24 hours. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and interleukin-6 (IL6) were then measured by ELISA (table below) .