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Federated Learning (FL) enables learning a shared model across many clients without violating the privacy requirements. One of the key attributes in FL is the heterogeneity that exists in both resource and data due to the differences in computation and communication capacity, as well as the quantity and content of data among different clients. We conduct a case study to show that heterogeneity in resource and data has a significant impact on training time and model accuracy in conventional FLarXiv:2001.09249v1 fatcat:fy5wb66e4fdavmdjegojnjomou