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Legal consequences often hinge on whether events or incidents are categorized as isolated or connected, individual or systemic, anecdotal or part of a larger pattern. Courts tend to portray incidents of police brutality as anecdotal, fragmented, and isolated rather than as part of a systemic, institutional pattern. Though numerous doctrines-including federalism, separation of powers, causation, deference, discretion, and burden of proof--provide partial explanations for the judicialdoi:10.2139/ssrn.165395 fatcat:xhne4rwpljfkzo3esf3yeda2ja