Radiotherapy of oligometastatic prostate cancer: a systematic review

Paul Rogowski, Mack Roach, Nina-Sophie Schmidt-Hegemann, Christian Trapp, Rieke von Bestenbostel, Run Shi, Alexander Buchner, Christian Stief, Claus Belka, Minglun Li
2021 Radiation Oncology  
Background Due to improved imaging sensitivity, the term "oligometastatic" prostate cancer disease is diagnosed more often, leading to an increasing interest in metastasis-directed therapy (MDT). There are two types of radiation based MDT applied when treating oligometastatic disease: (1) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) generally used for bone metastases; or (2) SBRT for isolated nodal oligometastases combined with prophylactic elective nodal radiotherapy. This review aims to
more » ... iew aims to summarize current evidence data, which may shed light on the optimal management of this heterogeneous group of patients. Methods A systematic review of the Medline database through PubMed was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. All relevant studies published up to November 2020 were identified and screened. Fifty-six titles were included. Besides outcome parameters, different prognostic and predictive factors were assessed, including site of metastases, time between primary treatment and MDT, use of systemic therapies, hormone sensitivity, as well as pattern of recurrence. Findings Evidence consists largely of retrospective case series and no consistent precise definition of oligometastasis exists, however, most investigators seem to acknowledge the need to distinguish between patients presenting with what is frequently called "synchronous" versus "metachronous" oligometastatic disease. Available data on radiotherapy as MDT demonstrate high local control rates and a small but relevant proportion of patients without progressive disease after 2 years. This holds true for both hormone sensitive and castration resistant prostate cancer diseases. The use of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT for staging increased dramatically. Radiation doses and field sizes varied considerably among the studies. The search for relevant prognostic and predictive factors is ongoing. Conclusions To our best knowledge this review on oligometastatic prostate cancer included the largest number of original articles. It demonstrates the therapeutic potential and challenges of MDT for oligometastatic prostate cancer. Prospective studies are under way and will provide further high-level evidence.
doi:10.1186/s13014-021-01776-8 pmid:33750437 pmcid:PMC7941976 fatcat:cenu4pu4qjbtjpeajfdo4kks2e