Lower‐level associations in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: convergence between hyperbinding of stimulus and response features and procedural hyperfunctioning theories

Adam Takacs, Alexander Münchau, Dezso Nemeth, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
2021 European Journal of Neuroscience  
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) can be characterized by enhanced cognitive functions related to creating, modifying and maintaining connections between stimuli and responses (S-R links). Specifically, two areas, procedural sequence learning and, as a novel finding, also event file binding show converging evidence of hyperfunctioning in GTS. In this review, we describe how these two enhanced functions can be considered as cognitive mechanisms behind habitual behaviour, such as tics in GTS.
more » ... oreover, the presence of both procedural sequence learning and event file binding hyperfunctioning in the same disorder can be treated as evidence for their functional connections, even beyond GTS. Importantly though, we argue that hyperfunctioning of event file binding and procedural learning are not interchangeable: they have different time scales, different sensitivities to potential impairment in action sequencing and distinguishable contributions to the cognitive profile of GTS. An integrated theoretical account of hyperbinding and hyperlearning in GTS allows to formulate predictions for the emergence, activation and long-term persistence of tics in GTS.
doi:10.1111/ejn.15366 pmid:34155701 fatcat:4fwqln6l2vc2jbscepx6lygbse