J Baker, M McGrogan, C Simonsen, R Gronke, B Festoff
Human foreskin fibroblasts secrete several different serine protease inhibitors which differ in size and protease specificities. These proteins, called protease nexins (PNs) all form SDS-resistant complexes with their protease targets. Fibroblast surface receptors recognize the protease-PN complexes and mediate their delivery to lysosomes. PNI is a 45 kilodalton glycoprotein that rapidly inhibits several arg or lys-specific proteases including trypsin, thrombin, and urokinase (k assoc.∼ 4×l06,∼
more » ... 6×105 and ∼ 2×105, m−1s−1 respectively). Like antithrombin III, PNI binds heparin and inhibits thrombin at a vastly accelerated rate in the presence of this glycoaminoglycan. Immunofluorescence studies show that in addition to secreting PNI foreskin fibroblasts carry this inhibitor on their surfaces. PNI cDNA has been cloned and sequenced. A mixed oligonucleotide probe derived from PNI N-terminal sequence was used to probe a foreskin fibroblast cDNA library constructed with λGT10. Identification of PNI cDNAs has been verified by sequencing and by expressing active PNI protein in mammalian cells. The full amino acid sequence of PNI, deduced from cDNA sequencing, is 392 residues long and has 30% homology to antithrombin III. An arg-ser pair 32 residues from the C-terminus of the inhibitor is proposed as the reactive center P1-P1 residues. In the hinge region a lys residue is present in a position occupied by a ginor glu residue in other serpins. PNI mRNA exists in 2 slightly different forms:One (αPNI) yields a thr-arg-ser sequence wherethe other βPNI) yields a thr-thr-gly-ser sequence. The presence of the appropriate splice acceptor sites in the genome indicates that these forms are generated from a single gene by alternative splicing. Expressed aPNI and 0PNI proteins both bind thrombin and urokinase. In foreskin fibroblaststhe α form of PNI mRNA predominates over the β form by about 2:1. In foreskin fibroblast cultures secreted PNI inhibits the mitogenic response to thrombin and regulate secreted urokinase. Purified PNI added to human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells inhibitsthe tumor cell-mediated destruction of extracellular matrix and transiently, but dramatically, inhibits tumor cell growth. PNI or PNI-like inhibitors may function at multiple physiological sites. The β form of PNI is virtually identical to a glia-derived neurite promoting factor, the cDNA for which has been recently cloned and sequenced by Gloor et al (1). The neurite outgrowth activity of PNI may result from inhibition of a thrombin-like protease that is associated with neurons, since a number of thrombin inhibitors stimulate neurite extension. Recent immunofluoresence experiments, carried out with D. Hantai (Inserm; Paris) demonstrate that anti-PNI antibody intensely stains neuromuscular synapses. In addition, a PNI-like inhibitor is associated with platelets. At low (0.5 nM <) 125I-thrombin concentrations formation of 125I-thrombin-platelet PNI complexes accounts for most of the specific binding of 125I-thrombin to platelets (2). Although the platelet-associated form of PNI is electrophoretically and immunologically indistinguishable from fibroblast PNI, it does not bind urokinase, suggesting that it may be distinct.(1) Gloor, S., K. Odink, J. Guenther, H. Nick, and D. Monard. (1986) Cell 47:687-693.(2) Gronke, R.S., B.L. Bergman, and J.B. Baker. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. (in press)
doi:10.1055/s-0038-1644765 fatcat:ovuuasmkfzdatkmukwuw53g6i4