Recovery of bioactive anthocyanin pigments from Ficus carica L. peel by heat, microwave, and ultrasound based extraction techniques

Emanueli Backes, Carla Pereira, Lillian Barros, M.A. Prieto, Aziza Kamal Genena, Maria Filomena Barreiro, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
2018 Food Research International  
Due to its coloration, the fig (Ficus carica L.) peel, a by-product of fruit processing and/or consumption, is a potential source of anthocyanin compounds. In the present study different extraction techniques (heat, ultrasound, and microwave) were compared aiming to recover the anthocyanin pigments and optimize its extraction conditions. A response surface methodology tool with three factors and five levels for each factor was used according to a circumscribed central composite design. The
more » ... bles tested for the heat and microwave extraction methods were time, temperature, and solvent proportion (ethanol/water ratio), meanwhile, for the ultrasound method, the variables tested were the ultrasonic power, time, and solvent proportion. The anthocyanin composition of the extract was determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the used criteria responses were: i) quantification of cyanidin 3-rutinoside (C) in the extracted residue (mg C/g R) and in the dried peel (mg C/g P dw), and the extraction yield of the obtained residue (g R/g P dw). Ultrasound extraction was the most effective method, yielding 3.82 mg C/g R at the optimal global extraction conditions (21 min, 310 W, and 100% of ethanol). Additionally, the solid-to-liquid ratio effect was studied at the optimal conditions, using a dose-response format, in view of its plausible transference to industrial level. For the ultrasound method, an increased non-linear relationship was observed for concentrations in the range 5 to 200 g/L, being the optimal solution close to 150 g/L. In brief, the obtained results show the potential of fig peels as a source of anthocyanin pigments, with potential uses in various industrial fields, such as food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic.
doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2018.07.016 pmid:30195514 fatcat:ghhzsczb7jeitpe55ohzajbjh4