Nanofibras poliméricas carregadas com oxitetraciclina para tratamento de alveolite seca: estudo em ratos
Viera PVA. Oxytetracycline-loaded polymeric nanofibers for the treatment of dry socket: a study in rats [thesis]. São Paulo: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Odontologia; 2018. Versão Original. Dry socket is one of the most common and symptomatic postoperative complications in tooth extraction, however, to date, it does not have an established treatment protocol. Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, employed in the treatment of multiple infections. Nevertheless, in the
... ertheless, in the last few years, first-generation tetracyclines such as OTC, have been avoided due to the development of resistant microorganisms. Fortunately, in recent years there has been a contrary trend thanks to control measures in the use of antibiotics. Controlled release systems can prevent the development of bacterial resistance and decrease the risk of adverse effects. This study aimed to prepare a polymeric nanofiber of polycaprolactone and oxytetracycline (PCL/OTC), and to evaluate its physical and biological properties in vitro and in vivo, aiming its use in the treatment of dry socket at the future. The OTC-charged polymeric nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and drug release profile evaluation. The antibacterial activity of the nanofiber over a mixed biofilm containing Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eikenella corrodens, Streptococcus sanguis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was analyzed by counting the viable colony-forming units after 1, 4, 24, 30 and 48 h of contact. The alveolar repair process induced by the PCL/OTC nanofiber was evaluated histomorphologically and histomorphometrically after the treatment of dry socket in rat molars, and compared to the treatment with plain PCL nanofibers and Alvogyl TM , 7, 14 and 21 days after extraction. Finally, the identification and counting of osteoclasts were performed through the tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, at the same evaluation time points. PCL/OTC nanofibers presented random orientation in layers and multiform morphology. The release profile of the PCL/OTC system showed a burst effect within the first 8 hours, followed by a prolonged slow release period. The PCL/OTC nanofiber at a concentration of 132 μg OTC/mL reduced more than 50% of the biofilm colonies in the first few hours of release, followed by a maintenance period in which the percentage of bacterial colonies remained low. The PCL/OTC group presented the highest percentage of connective tissue on the 7 th day (p<0.05), and of newly formed bone on the 14 th and 21 st days (p<0.05) after dental extraction, compared to the other groups. The treatment of dry socket with the PCL/OTC fiber allowed almost complete tissue regeneration up to the 21 st day, and the chronology of tissue regeneration with this material was faster than with the plain PCL fiber, and the latter was more rapid than the positive control Alvogyl TM . The PCL/OTC group presented a lower amount (p<0.05) of osteoclasts per area than the other two groups in the three experimental periods. The prolonged release profile of OTC and the relevant biological properties presented by the PCL/OTC nanofibers suggest that these may be considered as an alternative treatment of dry socket.