2D Video Analysis of the Effects of TheraBand® CLX Neuromuscular Exercises on Overhead Deep Squat: An Observational Cohort Study
JPHR Journal of Performance Health Research
Overhead deep squat (OHDS) is used in both Functional Movement Screen (FMS TM ) and other systems to examine movement competency during squatting. There is little evidence examining the effectiveness of exercises in improving OHDS performance in individuals with stability dysfunctions. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of low-level corrective exercises using TheraBand® CLX TM bands on OHDS performance in subjects with identified stability dysfunction during
... Study Design: This is an observational cohort study. Methods: In total, 59 healthy subjects (age, 18-40 years), participated in this study. Subjects were included if they demonstrated stability dysfunction during squatting and were excluded if they had a history of spinal or lower extremity injury or surgery and/or neurological or balance issues. Two-dimensional (2D) videos were used to record a preintervention (pre) OHDS in the frontal and sagittal views. Corrective exercises using TheraBand CLX were assigned on the basis of OHDS deficits. Subjects performed 3 sets of 15 repetitions of the assigned corrective exercises at a nonfatiguing workload, and postintervention (post) 2D videos were repeated. All videos were analyzed using Dartfish® Software to measure trunk angle, knee separation distance, and squat depth. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between pre and post measures of knee separation at 0°of knee flexion (P = 0.013) and 60°of knee flexion (P = 0.039), as well as trunk-to-floor angle at 60°of knee flexion (P = 0.020) and at full depth (P = 0.000). Pre and post measures of full squat depth and knee separation at full depth were not significantly different. The effect sizes of the measured variables were small to medium, ranging from 0.02 to 0.67. Discussion: Corrective exercises using TheraBand CLX had several positive short-term statistically significant effects on OHDS mechanics. Small effect sizes were associated with knee separation (0°and 60°) and trunk angle at 60°, and a medium effect size was associated with trunk angle at full depth. Thus, movement changes observed in the postintervention squat cannot be fully attributed to the interventions. Conclusion: Significant short-term changes with small-to-medium effect sizes were found in multiple outcome measures; however, it is questionable whether these changes would be clinically observable in a physical therapy or sports performance setting without the use of video analysis.