Ambientes restauradores : uma retomada do urbano [thesis]

Elisa Dias Becker Reifschneider
v Agradecimentos Uma tese não se faz sem serviço de delivery, conta na amazon e quantidades copiosas de chocolate, café, coca-cola, boa música, boa literatura e, em dias de aperto, ar condicionado. Minha imensa gratidão aos que trabalham nos bastidores e evitam que o dia-a-dia imploda em mil pedacinhos. Agradeço: Aos participantes dos três estudos que dividiram comigo seu tempo e confiaram a mim seus dados, assim como a todos que me ajudaram na divulgação das várias etapas: muito obrigada, não
more » ... uito obrigada, não há como fazer ciência sem vocês; Aos colegas do Laboratório de Psicologia Ambiental, antigos e atuais, pelas trocas realizadas, e à Isolda, pela acolhida afetuosa; Aos colegas de trabalho, em especial à Telma, pelo cuidado, e ao Bruno, pela gentileza, quando não estive bem; Ao professor Reinaldo Guedes Machado, por me fazer sentir em casa na Arquitetura; Ao professor Gerson Américo Janczura, pelas importantes sugestões de melhoria do trabalho à época da qualificação; Aos membros da banca, pelas generosas contribuições para o aprimoramento do trabalho, pela escuta atenta, leitura detalhada e diálogo enriquecedor. Um agradecimento especial à professora Suely, por ter me guiado na construção de uma visão humana, esperançosa e de excelência na psicologia, à época da graduação. Overseas thank yous are in order as well: To Ellen Campanella, my Science teacher when I was a kid, for first presenting me Science both as a gift and a wonder; To Jos Brosschot, my master thesis supervisor, for encouraging me to think outside the box, while at the same time reminding me that there is indeed such a thing as the box; To Robert, for his big heart and rebellious funny bone. Às queridas amigas: Aline, Camila, Clarice e Lílian. Meninas, vocês me trazem alegria, apoio e leveza. Como tenho sorte de passar os dias com vocês! À Lílian um agradecimento especial pelo recrutamento entusiasmado de ajudantes desavisados em várias etapas do trabalhoa eles estendo meus agradecimentos. Também à Jamille e Alciane agradeço pelo companheirismo e risadas. À Raquel, Maíra, Patrícia, Juliana e Luciana, pela amizade querida e duradoura; À Jujuba, amiga-irmã, pela torcida empolgada em todas as coisas; À minha família, berço do meu apreço pela estética e base de todo amor; Ao meu orientador, Hartmut Günther. Pelo exemplo de autenticidade, acolhida, compromisso, respeito, gentileza e incentivo. Lá se vão dezessete anos de parceria, desde a graduação. No regrets: isso diz muito. Fecho estes agradecimentos com quem ocupa há muito o primeiro lugar. Ao Hugo, meu amor e meu amigo: por muito mais do que aquilo que cabe em palavras, mas em especial por ficar do meu lado sempre, apesar do risco de virar picadinho. Abstract Urban restorative environments: a retake. This research focuses on physical environments that restore cognitive and emotional capacities worn out in daily life. In comparison with natural environments, reflective glass buildings, unconventional architectural buildings and graffiti art murals were investigated. With a card sorting task we investigated whether these three elements were perceived as distinct from other urban elements and how they were classified (Study 1); with a semantic differential task we investigated what were their perceived restorative profiles (Study 2); and with an experiment we investigated in which way restoration promoted by the visualization of sculptural buildings (a subset of unconventional buildings) and reflective glass buildings compared to restoration obtained by nature scenes, in all cases after an experimental stressor (Study 3). The first study (n=152) showed that there are formal grouping criteria that are shared between subjects, that the three urban elements of interest comprise different groups and that groupings differ between lay people and people with art training. The second study (n=125) showed that nature is the most preferred environment (54,4%) as well as the one perceived as most restorative. Reflective glass buildings are perceived as mainly neutral and unconventional buildings and graffiti art are intermediate groups. Perceived restorative profile is different between lay people and people with arts training for subtypes of urban scenarios, but not for nature. The third study (n=40) showed that there are no differences in attentional restoration and restoration for physiological measures (electrodermal activity and systolic blood pressure) between nature, sculptural architecture and reflective glass conditions. A difference in subjective stress was perceived between groups: the perception of relaxation was smaller for participants in the reflective glass group. This research's main contribution is the observation that there is an elevated restorative potential in well preserved urban environments with architectural projects emphasizing elements such as curved, organic, fluid, complex but harmonic lines, the presence of niches and the integration with nature and water features. In addition, graffiti art presents a promising restorative profile and should be further investigated. We conclude that: it is not possible to treat urban environments as a homogeneous group; it is necessary to study the differences in environments taking into account their complexity; there are differences in classification and perception of the restorative potential of urban environments for lay people and people with training in the arts; and, finally, research in the area should strive to make a joint evaluation of the various aspects of the restoration experience: subjective perception, attentional indicators and physiological indicators.
doi:10.26512/2016.03.t.19982 fatcat:se3cb6hovfgqloyswvsxufaaci