Chaudhary S, Kapila A, Sharma RB, Vashist H
2016 International Journal of Recent Advances in Science and Technology  
A peptic ulcer is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum. The two most common types of peptic ulcer are called gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers. Peptic ulcers are found to be due to an imbalance between aggressive factors such as hydrochloric acid (HCL), pepsin, refluxed bile, leukotrienes (LTs), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and defensive factors, which include the function of the mucus bicarbonate barrier, prostaglandins(PGs), mucosal blood flow, cell renewal and migration,
more » ... atic and enzymatic antioxidants and some growth factors. H. pylori infection and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the predominant causes of peptic ulcer disease. Also a numbers of factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcer, among which major factors involved are bacterial infection (Helicobacter pylori), certain medications (NSAID), chemicals (Hcl/ethanol), gastric cancer and minor factors are stress, smoking, spicy food and nutritional deficiencies. Due to changes in life style and eating habits an increase in frequency to be affected by ulceration in gastric contents can be observed now a day. At the same time a number of semi synthetic and synthetic drugs like proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor antagonists, and mucosal defensive agents along with various antimicrobial agents are available for the treatment of ulcer.
doi:10.30750/ijarst.v3i3.14045 fatcat:bktchi5e3rhqhjy22cp7g7v27e