Hydroxyl radical formation and soluble trace metal content in particulate matter from renewable diesel and ultra low sulfur diesel in at-sea operations of a research vessel
Aerosol Science and Technology
2017) Hydroxyl radical formation and soluble trace metal content in particulate matter from renewable diesel and ultra low sulfur diesel in at-sea operations of a research vessel, Aerosol Science and Technology, 51:2, 147-158, ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species, including hydroxyl radicals generated by particles, play a role in both aerosol aging and PM2.5 mediated health effects. We assess the impacts of switching marine vessels from conventional diesel to renewable fuel on the ability of
... es to generate hydroxyl radical when extracted in a simulated lung lining fluid or in water at pH 3.5, for samples of engine emissions from a research vessel when operating on ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD). Samples were collected during dedicated cruises in 2014 and 2015, including aged samples collected by re-intercepting the ship plume. After normalizing to particle mass, particles generated from HDRD combustion had slightly to significantly (5-50%) higher OH generation activity than those from ULSD, a difference that was statistically significant for some permutations of year/fuel/engine speed. Water soluble trace metal concentrations and fuel metal concentrations were similar, and compared to urban Los Angeles samples lower in soluble iron and manganese, but similar for most other trace metals. Because PM mass emissions were higher for HDRD, normalizing to fuel increased this difference. Freshly emitted PM had lower activity than the "plume chase" samples, and samples collected on the ship had lower activity than the urban reference. The differences in OH production correlated reasonably well with redox-active transition metals, most strongly with soluble manganese, with roles for vanadium and likely copper and iron. The results also suggest that atmospheric processing of fresh combustion particles rapidly increases metal solubility, which in turn increases OH production.