The T2 Toxin Produced by Fusarium spp. Impacts Porcine Duodenal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS)-Positive Nervous Structures—The Preliminary Study
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
T2 toxin synthetized by Fusarium spp. negatively affects various internal organs and systems, including the digestive tract and the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. However, knowledge about the effects of T2 on the enteric nervous system (ENS) is still incomplete. Therefore, during the present experiment, the influence of T2 toxin with a dose of 12 µg/kg body weight (b.w.)/per day on the number of enteric nervous structures immunoreactive to neuronal isoform nitric oxide synthase
... ed here as a marker of nitrergic neurons) in the porcine duodenum was studied using the double immunofluorescence method. Under physiological conditions, nNOS-positive neurons amounted to 38.28 ± 1.147%, 38.39 ± 1.244%, and 35.34 ± 1.151 of all enteric neurons in the myenteric (MP), outer submucous (OSP), and inner submucous (ISP) plexuses, respectively. After administration of T2 toxin, an increase in the number of these neurons was observed in all types of the enteric plexuses and nNOS-positive cells reached 46.20 ± 1.453% in the MP, 45.39 ± 0.488% in the OSP, and 44.07 ± 0.308% in the ISP. However, in the present study, the influence of T2 toxin on the intramucosal and intramuscular nNOS-positive nerves was not observed. The results obtained in the present study indicate that even low doses of T2 toxin are not neutral for living organisms because they may change the neurochemical characterization of the enteric neurons.