Notes on the Birds of Khumbakarna Himal, Eastern Nepal
Japanese Journal of Ornithology
During the past thirty-five years or so a great deal of ornithological research has been done in Nepal. As a result our knowledge of the distribution of Nepal birds increased considerably and the avifauna of that country has become fairly well known. This is particularly true of the birds of Kathmandu Valley, Khumbu Himal region, and most of terai areas, where extensive observations and collections have been made. There are, however, few publications dealing with the avifaunas of highlands in
... r-northeastern, trans-Himalayan (Mustang), and northwestern regions, as these areas are not only difficult of access but are still largely restricted to foreigners for military and political reasons. It is astonishing that Nepal, with an area of only 140,797 km2, has a total of more than 800 species of birds in its avifauna and more to be added. See FLEMING et al. (1979) for a general discussion and the important literature on Nepal birds. An account of earlier ornithological explorations in Nepal is given by RIPLEY (1950), whereas BISWAS (1960-63) summarized all distributional data of Nepal birds then known to him. While in Nepal in the fall of 1979, we were fortunate to get a trekking permit for crossing the Arun River and tracking the way to the Makalu Base Camp. This enabled us to stay in the villages of Sheduwa and Navagaon in Singsa, Dhankuta District. These villages are situated in very remote place, above which uninhabited forests stretch to the timber line. Aside from several mountaineering parties, a few people have visited the area. The present paper is intended to supplement the available information on the distribution and ecology of the birds of eastern Nepal. Our field work at lower elevations was very sporadic, so that the species that were observed or collected below Bhotebas (see "Itinerary" and "Study Area") were given in an Appendix.