Shear Bond Strength and Film Thickness of a Naturally Antimicrobial Modified Dental Luting Cement
Although several natural plants and mixtures have been known and used over the centuries for their antibacterial activity, few have been thoroughly explored in the field of dentistry. Thus, the aim of this study was to enhance the antimicrobial activity of a conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) with natural plant extracts. The effect of this alteration on the bond strength and film thickness of glass ionomer cement was evaluated and related to an 0.5% chlorohexidine modified GIC. Olive
... ed GIC. Olive leaves (Olea europaea), Fig tree (Ficus carica), and the leaves and roots of Miswak (Salvadora persica) were used to prepare an alcoholic extract mixture. The prepared extract mixture after the evaporation of the solvent was used to modify a freeze-dried glass ionomer cement at three different extracts: water mass ratios 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1. An 0.5% chlorhexidine diacetate powder was added to a conventional GIC for the preparation of a positive control group (CHX-GIC) for comparison. The bond strength to dentine was assessed using a material-testing machine at a cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Failure mode was analyzed using a stereomicroscope at 12× magnification. The cement film thickness was evaluated in accordance with ISO standard 9917-1. The minimum number of samples in each group was n = 10. Statistical analysis was performed using a Kruskal–Wallis test followed by Dunn's post hoc test for pairwise comparison. There was a statistically insignificant difference between the median shear bond strength (p = 0.046) of the control group (M = 3.4 MPa), and each of the CHX-GIC (M = 1.7 MPa), and the three plant modified groups of 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 (M = 5.1, 3.2, and 4.3 MPa, respectively). The CHX-GIC group showed statistically significant lower median values compared to the three plant-modified groups. Mixed and cohesive failure modes were predominant among all the tested groups. All the tested groups (p < 0.001) met the ISO standard of having less than 25 µm film thickness, with the 2:1 group (M = 24 µm) being statistically the highest among all the other groups. The plant extracts did not alter either the shear bond strength or the film thickness of the GIC and thus might represent a promising additive to GICs.