Epi-Cease : A Non-Invasive Closed-Loop Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)-based Device for Antiepileptic Drug Resistant Epilepsy [article]

Mohammad Amin Adibi, Anujan Poologaindran
2017
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Unfortunately, this disorder affects 50 million people worldwide and of all ages, making it the fourth most common neurological disorder. As a result, epilepsy reduces an individual's quality of life and provides a challenge for family members and caregivers. Over the last few decades, many advances have been made in effectively treating and
more » ... ting and controlling epilepsy. Today, a focused history, physical examination, blood work, and video-EEG are all part of the standard protocol in the accurate and timely diagnosis of epilepsy. Once the epileptic etiology is identified, anti-epileptic drugs (AED) represent a first-line pharmacological treatment for these patients. Unfortunately, a portion of patients do not respond to multiple AEDs and may display dose-dependent side effects that warrant AED discontinuation. These patients are considered for neurosurgical intervention after case and extensive review. Many centres, including Vancouver General Hospital, employ temporal lobectomy for focal temporal lobe epilepsies. This procedure is quite effective for a small portion of patients but is highly invasive and can lead to complications in verbal memory in 0.4-4% of patients. More importantly, brain surgery is not for all patients and can only be applied to patients suffering from temporal lobe seizures. The goal of this proposal is to "non-invasively reduce the frequency, duration and/or severity of seizures in drug-resistant focal epilepsy patients". Particularly, we set out to circumvent the highly invasive nature of brain surgery and its limited widespread use. Moreover, we wished to develop a technology that would non-invasively "abort" seizures in real-time. Our proposed solution, Epi-Cease, is a non-invasive closed-looped system that consists of a wearable head-strap tDCS (transcranial direct-current stimulation) that delivers non-invasive stimulation to abort a seizure. This [...]
doi:10.14288/1.0340749 fatcat:6cnmeg3tojealdi2p5wv52ydyi