Stochastic parameterization identification using ensemble Kalman filtering combined with maximum likelihood methods

Manuel Pulido, Pierre Tandeo, Marc Bocquet, Alberto Carrassi, Magdalena Lucini
2018 Tellus: Series A, Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography  
For modelling geophysical systems, large-scale processes are described through a set of coarse-grained dynamical equations while small-scale processes are represented via parameterizations. This work proposes a method for identifying the best possible stochastic parameterization from noisy data. State-the-art sequential estimation methods such as Kalman and particle filters do not achieve this goal succesfully because both suffer from the collapse of the parameter posterior distribution. To
more » ... come this intrinsic limitation, we propose two statistical learning methods. They are based on the combination of two methodologies: the maximization of the likelihood via Expectation-Maximization (EM) and Newton-Raphson (NR) algorithms which are mainly applied in the statistic and machine learning communities, and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The methods are derived using a Bayesian approach for a hidden Markov model. They are applied to infer deterministic and stochastic physical parameters from noisy observations in coarse-grained dynamical models. Numerical experiments are conducted using the Lorenz-96 dynamical system with one and two scales as a proof-of-concept. The imperfect coarse-grained model is modelled through a one-scale Lorenz-96 system in which a stochastic parameterization is incorpored to represent the small-scale dynamics. The algorithms are able to identify an optimal stochastic parameterization with a good accuracy under moderate observational noise. The proposed EnKF-EM and EnKF-NR are promising statistical learning methods for developing stochastic parameterizations in high-dimensional geophysical models.
doi:10.1080/16000870.2018.1442099 fatcat:xu3xhdhmzvg2jgbjiy45mwf6wu