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The question whether Muslims of non-Arab origin were culturally superior to the Arab Muslims was hotly debated within the society of the Baghdad Caliphate from the middle of the eighth century A.D. onwards. Various groups that aimed at remoulding the political and social institutions and the direction of the Islamic culture brought in the subject of the characteristics of the pre-Islamic and the contemporary civilized nations, their virtues and vices as well as their cultural history. It is indoaj:9a50cb1b351944de818e40f7831f4ca9 fatcat:z3x5uxrlovdxjj2frbbx7sjtby