Neighborhood's locality, road types, and residents' multimorbidity: evidence from China's middle-aged and older adults
Background Neighborhood factors have gained increasing attention, while the association between the neighborhood's characteristics and multimorbidity has not been clarified. In this study, we aim to depict variations in the number of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) as a function of urban vs. rural settings and road types.Methods The present cross-sectional study derived data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2011 National Baseline Survey. Negative binomial
... ve binomial regression with clustered robust standard errors was performed to analyze variations in the number of NCDs among 13,414 Chinese middle-aged and older adults. Logistic regression models were employed to investigate the association between neighborhood-level characteristics and each NCD, respectively. Results First, over 65% of subjects had at least one NCDs, and over 35% had multimorbidity. Arthritis (33.08%), hypertension (24.54%), and digestive disease (21.98%) were the most prevalent NCDs. Urban vs. rural differences in multimorbidity were fully explained by neighborhood clustering variations (IRR = 1.02, 95% CI, 0.95 - 1.10). Living with paved roads was associated with a smaller number of NCDs relative to living with unpaved roads (IRR = 0.86, 95% CI, 0.78 - 0.95). Results from subgroup analyses suggested that in comparison with those living with unpaved roads, individuals living with paved roads respectively had lower odds of chronic lung disease (OR = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.63 - 0.93), chronic liver disease (OR = 0.74, 95% CI, 0.55 - 0.99), chronic kidney disease (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.51 - 0.89), digestive disease (OR = 0.82, 95% CI, 0.69 - 0.97), arthritis or rheumatism (OR = 0.69, 95% CI, 0.55 - 0.87), and asthma (OR = 0.67, 95% CI, 0.51 - 0.88). Conclusions Urban vs. rural disparities in multimorbidity appeared to result from within-neighborhoods characteristics. The improvement in neighborhood-level characteristics, such as road pavement, holds promise to alleviate the increasing disease burden of chronic diseases.